一口私人泡菜坛子
本论坛希望您的发言能够尽量言之有物,严禁灌水。如本论坛某些讨论令您感到不愉快,您可以选择离开此地。未成年人请在监护人陪同下浏览此网站。另外,请使用标准汉语。如非必要,您的帖子请发在胡言乱语区,精华区的帖子已经关闭。此外,本论坛不需要注册即可发言,请各位言责自负。谢谢各位。——网络上并不乏热闹的地方,但让人想说话的地方并不太多。如果你需要热闹,这里一定不适合你。这里是:朋友三四,合则聊,不合则拂袖而走。酒逢知己千杯少,话不投机半句多。
主页 | 登入 | 搜索 | 帮助 | lacool.net发布新主题 | Printer

Home / 陈年酿_老坛的精华贴子(仅限浏览) / 当前论坛精华
1 转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe)

新内容转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) tim.
(前些日子LP到处央人讲伍尔夫,终于有了回应。不过对于伍尔夫,虽然言者确确,我都情愿不相信。因为以前LP亦有名句云:一个个的都是L,就没意思了。我是这样理解的,一个思想丰富的女人本身就很有趣了,何苦都把她们安插成弯弯呢?

作者:dr.joe

Virginia的生平我略知一二。但一不学史,二无考证癖好。所以人名,年代皆
无。LP见谅。
(1882-1941)
Virginia Woolf 是伦敦人士 。 生在书香门第,父乃著名文艺评论家,出版界
颇有名望之人物。 幼年家庭极幸福。但因体弱多病,不曾入学,只在家中读
书。幸家中藏书极丰,因祸得福。
月满即亏,Virginia在青少年期受重大打击,其母病逝。后遭其半兄的xing nue,
此二痛一生不得恢复。后对性爱极端恐惧,便是和其挚爱也只有一两次性接
触。(道听途说)Virginia之母去后,其姐入住,代母之职,后亦病逝。再有其
父死于慢性癌症,其兄遇车祸身亡。至此, Virginia 终于精神崩溃。

疗养之后, Virginia搬到Bloomsbury与其姐Venessa 和二兄居住.(Bloomsbury
成为了当时一个有名的激进的Activism group, 一大批文人政客聚集的讨论
会) 后嫁给了左翼政治理论家Leonard Woolf.此结合乃是典型的虚凰假凤式婚
姻。Leonard此公也是有名的同性恋者,(后亦有他说,指Leonard只是Bi而已,
还曾经试图实质化二人之婚姻,终未果,传说而已,未可信) 但因此婚姻的同
志( not gay couple, real comrades)性质, Leonard 对 Virginia 无论是生
活还是写作上都给予极大的帮助. 数次挽救她于自杀的边缘

1915, Virginia 出版其第一部现实主义小说, Voyage Out,描写两朋友在伦
敦迥然不同的命运。1922,出版纪念其弟的Jacob’s Room.
To the lighthouse(中文译名,到灯塔去) ,大量充分运用了意识流 (意识
流,stream of thoughts, 由心理学家,哲学家 William James 所提出的理
论,认为人类的思想并不是片段的,独立的而是如河流一样连贯的。当然这就
牵涉到Mind/Body 的问题,好了,打住)

说的简单一点, Mulholland Drive 就是这样一个用人的意识而描述的故事,
表面上杂乱无章,实际上却有轨可寻。精神和意象的标志在意识流作品中占有
主要地位,如Mulholland Drive 中不明确却又无处不在的阴暗Hollywood,以
及对人生如戏的歌剧处理。

具体到在到灯塔去中,整个故事几乎没有任何的情节,只是一种意识的连续。
而灯塔是支离破碎的生活中的一种唯一不变的”美好" 标志。(Virginia 很小
就接触到大海,是其美好童年时代的代表) 。

除去小说以外,Virginia还是有名的文学批评家。她不带感情的犀利笔法和对
女权无时不忘的意识使其文学评论独具一格。她对意识流的运用,对于女权的
独特的理论和对同性恋情小心翼翼的试探均可见她著名的A room of one’s
own. (Joe十七岁看完以后,一夜之间白了少年头,主要的思想包含在后几章,
如果你有耐心看到那里的话)

Virginia在纳粹期间有多次自杀未遂。后终于在身上捆上石头,溺死在了自家
的澡盆里。死前给其夫君所留之信甚是感人。

对于Virginia文学,女权的理论分析,在网上有很多资料,我不再多赘。

现在谈一谈我们最感兴趣的八卦感情生活。Virginia在1922年(结婚十年后)遇
到当时的英国女小说家,大使夫人,Vita Sackville West。 两人一见钟情,
即开始二十年的苦恋。

比起Virginia来,Sackville- West的一生毫不逊色 。 她是出身于贵族 的书
香门第家庭中的独生女,(这样才有发展L的空间嘛)是一个非常男子气的女子。
(标准小T啊) 其母对她的描述是, “ugly, very long legs, Bony, and want
to be as boyish as possible. 比起Virginia性向的相对隐晦,Sackville-
West的性向就是公开的了。和她交往过的女子就有,Hilda Matheson (Head
of the BBC Talks Department) 。 Mary Campbell, 诗人 Roy Campbell的妻
子。她和Virginia的恋情也许是最著名的, 但她一生的 “正妻”却是Violet
(Keppel) Trefusis, 著名的Mrs.Alice Keppel的女儿, 爱得华七世的情人。两
人少年相遇,一生不离不弃。
(有兴趣的朋友可以自己查查资料)

Sackville的婚姻比Virginia的还要虚凰假凤,不但她在结婚期间和众多名嫒有
过风流轶事,其夫君也当仁不让地公开承认过有男性爱人。这样的婚姻之下居
然还生了两个孩子。有一个笑话说,一天,有人告诉Sackville-West的儿子
说,Virginia爱的是你的妈妈。她儿子白了那人一眼说,当然了,我们都爱我
妈妈。

虽然大部分史记都将Virginia最后的自杀归结于她悲剧色彩(xing¥¥虐,家人死亡)
的一生和过於超越现实的思想。但不可忽略的是她和Sackville的那段波折的感
情对她自杀所不可推卸的影响。

Virginia 和 Sackville-West的悲剧就在于Virginia是一个勤勉,自律,专一
而又 性格内向的女子。受过(xing)虐。。。待的她对於性持完全的否定和保留。(我看过
她的很多图片,真是一个温婉带落漠的女人)

而Sackville-West却是一个激烈,热情,而又风流的女子。
她在和Virginia认识之前就有过很多同性爱人,在和她认识期间又不断的结识
新的爱人,虽然是同性恋者却又能和男人产子。

这些对於Virginia来说都是致命的伤害。而强调女权主义的Virginia也是不能
容许这许多背叛的。

所以终于以一方自杀而落幕。
---------------------------------------------------------------------
我对Virginia的了解仅仅限於高中的一门女性文学课。当时的女老师是Les 女
权主义者, 无可避免的将整门课演变成Virginia Woolf正偏史。
至於她的文学作品, 小说和评论都只看过有限的三四部。(居然最喜欢以
Sackville-west为原形的Orlando)总的感觉是乏味,枯燥,看时苦不堪言,看
后精神分裂。过分强调了语言的诗意和象征手法的运用,总在缤纷迷幻之际尝
出现实和逻辑的血意。

08-01-2002 21:15:41

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) 老冰
为什么这个没有人跟?
那时候先是看了Woolf的《普通读者》,非常喜欢,后来又看了《自己的一间屋》,但是翻译得很拗口,于是借了英文版来看。封面就是她的照片,很悒郁,但怎么说呢?很优美,另外对她的鼻子印象非常深刻,很漂亮。
至于《到灯塔去》、《达洛卫夫人》,都静不下心看。《O的故事》想看了很久,好像没有译成中文吧?
08-04-2002 10:47:25

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) 刹那
档案
有的,见李银河《虐恋亚文化》后附。
08-05-2002 09:03:13

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) 老冰
对不起,打错了的干活,是《奥兰多传》,不是《O的故事》,后者的确在《虐恋》一书里看到。
08-05-2002 22:38:38

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) 阿朗.
忽然想起吴尔夫是因为前一段时间看《另起炉灶》,有一篇写到那个英国电视剧《婚姻画像》,那是Vita的儿子鼓捣出来的...

游摘引了几段吴和Vita的书信(看风格,也许是游自己翻译的),十分有趣。

我也是对吴的鼻子印象很深。

08-06-2002 09:46:22

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) 清蒸
冰:O的故事网上可搜,不过好象是节选。
08-06-2002 10:06:43

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) haihao
orlando 拍成过电影,典型的欧洲艺术长片。
VIRGINIA 的情人传说中有几个,首当其冲的就是她姐姐WENESSA,VIRGINIA 在一封信中说:我们会很快相见吗?会的,会搂抱着翻滚下山坡,麻雀(VIRGINIA自称)会从最隐秘处偷得亲吻!
后来VIRGINIA据说又和其姐夫文艺学家克来夫。贝尔有染,WENESSA知道后说:他们俩都是我最心爱的人,过去是、现在是、将来也会是。
VIEGINIA在给另一个女朋友(忘了名字)的信中竟写到:你有着多么奇妙的手指,它触动了麻雀滚烫的火山口!
不过,VIRGINIA最好的作品都是在与VITA感情颠峰的岁月里写出的。
最欣赏她的一句话:“伟大的头脑是半雄半雌的。”
08-09-2002 13:53:24

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) 洋葱的核
档案
很喜欢这里,所以就一页一页的看,真遗憾自己没早点发现这里。
tim.:看到“Virginia在纳粹期间有多次自杀未遂。后终于在身上捆上石头,溺死在了自家的澡盆里。死前给其夫君所留之信甚是感人。”我很吃惊。我第一次知道她的自杀还有这种版本的说法。我有本
《伍尔夫日记选》(百花文艺出版社97年版),上面说她是投河自杀的。
作家中自杀的不计其数,可身上捆上石头,溺死在了自家的澡盆里可不多。我的E文太烂了,没办法查英文资料来查证,中文的资料只能查到投河的版本。我太想确定知道她最后离开的方式了,能告诉我点资料以解我心头之惑吗?谢谢。
08-11-2002 19:23:05

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) haihao
我也听说她是投河而死,比之PLATH把头伸进烤箱、三毛勒丝袜,还算“正统”的死法。
反正是归于水的温柔浩淼。
08-12-2002 17:19:42

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) younger wonder
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) - in full Adeline Virginia Woolf, original surname Stephen
[http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/vwoolf.htm]


British author who made an original contribution to the form of the novel - also distinguished feminist essayist, critic in The Times Literary Supplement, and a central figure of Bloomsbury group. Woolf's books were published by Hogart Press, which she founded with her husband, the critic and writer Leonard Woolf. Originally their printing machine was small enough to fit on a kitchen table, but their publications later included T.S. Eliot's Waste Land (1922), fiction by Maksim Gorky, E.M. Forster, and Katherine Mansfield, and the complete twenty-four-volume translation of the works of Sigmund Freud.

"Have you any notion how many books are written about women in the course of one year? Have you any notion how many are written by men? Are you aware that you are, perhaps, the most discussed animal in the universe?"
Virginia Woolf was born in London, as the daughter of Julia Jackson Duckworth, a member of the Duckworth publishing family, and Leslie Stephen, a literary critic, a friend of Meredith, Henry James, Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, and George Eliot, and the founder of the Dictionary of National Biography. Leslie Stephen's first wife had been the daughter of the novelist William Makepeace Thackeray. His daughter Laura from the first marriage was institutionalized because of mental retardation. In a memoir dated 1907 she wrote of her parents, "Beautiful often, even to our eyes, were their gestures, their glances of pure and unutterable delight in each other."

Woolf was educated at home by her father, and grew up at the family home at Hyde Park Gate. In mddle age she described this period in a letter to Vita Sackville-West: "Think how I was brought up! No school; mooning about alone among my father's books; never any chance to pick up all that goes on in schools—throwing balls; ragging; slang; vulgarities; scenes; jealousies!" Woolf's youth was shadowed by series of emotional shocks - her half-brother Gerald Duckworth sexually abused her and her mother died when she was in her early teens. Stella Duckworth, her half sister, took her mother's place, but died a scant two years later. Leslie Stephen, her father, suffered a slow death from cancer. When her brother Toby died in 1906, she had a prolonged mental breakdown.

Following the death of her father in 1904, Woolf moved with her sister Vanessa and two brothers to the house in Bloomsbury, which would become central to activities of the Bloomsbury group. "And part of the charm of those Thursday evenings was that they were astonishingly abstract. It was not only that Moore's book [Principia Ethica, 1903] had set us all discussing philosophy, art, religion; it was that the atmosphere - if in spite of Hawtrey I may use that word - was abstract in the extreme. The young men I have named had no 'manners' in the Hyde Park Gate sense. They criticized our arguments as severely as their own. They never seemed to notice how we were dressed or if we were nice looking or not." (from Moments of Being, ed. by Jeanne Schulkind, 1976) Vanessa agreed to marry the critic of art and literature Clive Bell. Virginia's economic situation improved she she inherited £2,500 from an aunt.

From 1905 Woolf began to write for the Times Literary Supplement. In 1912 she married the political theorist Leonard Woolf, who had returned from serving as an administarator in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Woolf published her first book, THE VOYAGE OUT, in 1915. In 1919 appeared NIGHT AND DAY, a realistic novel set in London, contrasting the lives of two friends, Katherine and Mary. JACOB'S ROOM (1922) was based upon the life and death of her brother Toby.

With TO THE LIGHTHOUSE (1927) and THE WAVES (1931)Woolf established herself as one of the leading writers of modernism. On the publication of To the Lighthouse, Lytton Strachey wrote: "It is really most unfortunate that she rules out copulation - not the ghost of it visible - so that her presentation of things becomes little more... than an arabesque - an exquisite arabesque, of course." The Waves is perhaps Woolf's most difficult novel. It follows in soliloquies the lives of six persons from childhood to old age. Louis Kronenberger noted in The New York Times that Woolf was not really corncerned with people, but "the poetic symbols, of life--the changing seasons, day and night, bread and wine, fire and cold, time and space, birth and death and change."

In these works Woolf developed innovative literary techniques in order to reveal women's experience and find an alternative to the male-dominated views of reality. In her essay 'Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown' Woolf argued that John Galsworthy, H.G. Wells and other realistic English novelist dealt in surfaces but to get underneath these surfaces one must use less restricted presentation of life, and such devices as stream of consciousness and interior monologue and abandon linear narrative.

MRS DALLOWAY (1925) formed a giant web of thoughts of several groups of people during the course of a single day. There is little action, but much movement in time from present to past and back again through the characters memories. The central figure, Clarissa Dalloway, is a wealthy London hostess. She spends her day in London preparing for her evening party. She recalls her life before World War I, berofe her marriage to Richard Dalloway, and her friendship with the unconventional Sally Seton, and her relationship with Peter Walsh. At her party she never meets the shell-shocked veteran Septimus Smith, one of the first Englishmen to enlist in the war. Sally returns as Lady Rossetter, Peter Walsh is still enamored with Mrs. Dalloway, the prime minister arrives, and Smith commits suicide. To the Lighthouse had a tripartite structure: part 1 presented the Victorian family life, the second part covers a ten-year period, and the third part is a long account of a morning in which ghosts are laid to rest. The central figure in the novel, Mrs. Ramsay, was based on Woolf's mother. Also other characters in the book were drawn from Woolf's family memories.

"So that is marriage, Lily thought, a man and a woman looking at a girl throwing a ball." (from To the Lighthouse)
During the inter-war period Woolf was at the center of literary society both in London and at her home in Rodmell, near Lewes, Sussex. She lived in Richmond from 1915 to 1924, in Bloomsbury from 1924 to 1939, and maintained the house in Romdell from 1919-41. The Bloomsbury group was initially based at the Gordon Square residence of Virginia and her sister Vanessa (Bell). The consolidation of the group's beliefs in unifying aesthetic concerns occurred under the influence of the philosopher G.E. Moore (1873-195. The group included among others E.M. Forster, Lytton Strachey, Clive Bell, Vanessa Bell, Duncan Grant, and Leonard Woolf. By the early 1930s, the group ceased to exist in its original form.

In the event of a Nazi invastion, Woolf and Leonard had made provisions to kill themselves. After the final attack of mental illness Woolf loaded her pockets with stones and drowned herself in the River Ouse near her Sussex home on March 28, 1941. On her note to her husband she wrote: "I have a feeling I shall go mad. I cannot go on longer in these terrible times. I hear voices and cannot concentrate on my work. I have fought against it but cannot fight any longer. I owe all my happiness to you but cannot go on and spoil your life." Her suicide has colored interpretations of her works, which have been read perhaps too straightly as explorations of her own traumas.

Virginia Woolf's concern with feminist thematics are dominant in A ROOM OF ONE'S OWN (1929). In it she made her famous statement: "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." The book originated from two expanded and revised lectures the author presented at Cambridge University's Newnham and Girton Colleges in October 1928. It deals with the obstacles and prejudices that have hindered women writers, and analyzes the differences between women as objects of representation and women as authors of representation. Woolf argued that a change in the forms of literature was necessary because most literature had been "made by men out of their own needs for their own uses." In the last chapter it explores the possibility of an androgynous mind. Woolf refers to Coleridge who said that a great mind is androgynous and states that when this fusion takes place the mind is fully fertilized and uses all its faculties. "Perhaps a mind that is purely masculine cannot create, any more than a mind that is purely feminine..." THREE GUINEAS (193 examined the necessity for women to make a claim for their own history and literature. ORLANDO (192, a fantasy novel, traced the career of the androgynous protagonist from a masculine identity within the Elisabethan court to a feminine identity in 1928. The book was illustrated with pictures of Woolf's lover, Vita Sackville-West, dressed as Orlando. According to Nigel Nicolson, the initiative to start the affair came as much on Virginia's side as on the more experienced Vita's. Their relationship coincided with a period of great creative productivity in Woolf's career as a writer. In 1994 Eileen Atkins dramatized their letters in her play Vita and Virginia, starring Atkins and Vanessa Redgrave.

As an essayist Woolf was prolific, publishing some 500 essays in periodicals and collections, beginning 1905. Characteristic for Woolf's essays are dialogic nature of style and continual questioning of opinion - her reader is often directly addressed, in a conversational tone, and her rejection of an authoritative voice links her essays to the tradition of Montaigne.

Leonard (Sidney) Woolf (1880-1969) - Born in London as the son of a barrister. Woolf studied at Cambridge and in 1904 he went into civil service to Ceylon. His first book, The Village in the Jungle, appeared in 1913. Woolf joined the Fabian Society and wrote for The New Statesman. From 1923 to 1930 he was a literary editor on the Nation. In 1917 he set up a small hand press at Hogart House, and worked as the director of the Hogarth Press until his death. Among Woolf's works are novels, non-fiction and his five volume memoirs Sowing (1960), Growing (1961), Beginning Again (1964), Downhill All the Way (1967) and The Journey Not the Arrival Matters (1969). - For further information: Leonard Woolf by S.S. Myerowitz (1982); A Marriage of True Minds by G. Spater and I.M. Parsons (1977) - For further reading: Virginia Woolf by Quentin Bell (1972, 2 vols.); Moments of Being, ed. by Jeanne Schulkind (1976); The Novels of Virginia Woolf from Beninning to End by M.A. Leaska (1977); Virginia Woolf: A Feminist Slant by by J. Marcus (1983); Woman of Letters by Rose Phyllis (197; Virginia Woolf: a Winter's Life by Lyndall Gordon (1984); Virginia Woolf by Rachel Bowlby (198; Virginia Woolf and the Fictions of Psychoanalysis by Elizabeth Abel (1989); Virginia Woolf: The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Her Life and Work by Louise DeSalvo (1989); Virginia Woolf: A Literary Life by John Mepham (1991); Virginia Woolf: A Collection of Critical Essays by M. Homans (1993); Vita and Virginia by Suzanne Raitt (1993); Virginia Woolf by Quentin Bell (1996); The Feminist Aesthetics of Virginia Woolf by Jane Goldman (199; Virginia Woolf by Hermione Lee (1996); Virginia Woolf by Nigel Nicolson (2000) - Note: Toni Morrison, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993, wrote her thesis at Cornell University on Faulkner and Virginia Woolf. - See also: Katherine Mansfield, Marcel Proust
SELECTED WORKS:

THE VOYAGE OUT, 1915
NIGHT AND DAY, 1919
MONDAY OR TUESDAY, 1921
JACOB'S ROOM, 1922
MRS. DALLOWAY, 1925 - suom. - film 1998, dir. by Marleen Gorris, adapted by Eileen Atkins, starring Vanessa Redgrave, Michael Kitchen, Rupert Graves, John Standing, Lena Headley. - "What had seemed at first a frivolous exercise in social decorum has turned into a probing examination of the Big Question that haunts our lives. As Mrs. Dalloway leaves the party to stand outside the window at her balcony, looking down at the hard, upraised iron spikes of the fence below - the same kind of spikes that impaled the body of the wretched Septimus - she asks to herself, Is there a plan for our lives? Why do we live on in the face of pain and tragedy?" (from Novels into Film by John C. Tibbetts and James M. Welsh, 1997)
THE COMMON READER, 1925
TO THE LIGHTHOUSE, 1927 - Majakka - film 1983
ORLANDO, 1928 - suom. (Chief model for the character of Orlando was writer Vita Sackville-West, with whom Woolf had a lesbian relationship) - film 1992, written and dir. by Sally Potter, starring Tilda Swinton, Billy Zane, Lothaire Bluteau, John Wood
A ROOM OF ONE'S OWN, 1929 - Oma huone
THE WAVES, 1931 - Aallot
FLUSH, 1933 - Runoilijan koira
THE YEARS, 1937
THREE GUINEAS, 1938
ROGER FRY: A BIOGRAPHY, 1940
BETWEEN THE ACTS, 1941
THE DEATH OF THE MOTH, 1942
A HAUNTED HOUSE, 1943
THE MOMENT AND OTHER ESSAYS, 1947
THE CAPTAIN'S DEATH BED AND OTHER ESSAYS, 1950
A WRITER'S DIARY, 1953(ed. by Leonard Woolf)
VIRGINIA WOOLF AND LYTTON STRACHEY, 1956
GRANITE AND RAINBOW, 1958
THE LADY IN THE LOOKINGGLASS, 1960
CONTEMPORARY WRITERS, 1960
NURSE LUGTON'S GOLDEN THIMBLE, 1966
COLLECTED ESSAYS, 1967 (4 vols., ed. by Leonard Woolf)
MRS. DALLOWAY'S PARTY, 1973
MOMENTS OF BEING, 1976 - Elettyjä hetkiä
BOOKS AND PORTRAITS, 1977
THE LETTERS OF VIRGINIA WOOLF, 1975-80 (5 vols., ed. by Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann)
WOMEN AND FICTION, 1979 (ed. by Michèle Barrett)
THE DIARY OF VIRGINIA WOOLF, 5 vol., 1977-84 (ed. by Anne Olivier Bell)
THE LETTERS OF VIRGINIA WOOLF TO VITA SACKWILLE-WEST, 1984
THE COMPLETE SHORTER FICTION OF VIRGINIA WOOLF - Nainen peilissä
THE ESSAYS, 1986-94
A PASSIONATE APPRENTICE: THE EARLY JOURNALS, 1897-1909, 1990 (ed. by Mitchell Leaska)
A WOMAN'S ESSAYS, 1992
THE CROWDED DANCE OF MODERN LIFE, 1993

08-12-2002 23:54:59

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) shafu
网上转

海明威:一切故事,讲到相当长度,都是以死结束的。
自杀方式:在住所附近的海边把双筒猎枪放进嘴里,扣动了扳机。


三毛:要是有那么一天。我活着不能回来,灰也是要回来的。
自杀方式:在台北荣民总医院用丝袜上吊
  
老舍:讨债的到了家门,看不出你的眉头里自杀的标志,你满可以当他的面上一回吊。
自杀方式:投入太平湖自尽
  
三岛由纪夫:我们再也不能等待,只等最后三十分钟,让我们一起为道义而死吧。
自杀方式:在日本自卫队总监室剖腹

茨威格:我精神上的故乡已毁灭,我再也没有地方可以从头开始我的生活了。
自杀方式:在寓所与自已的妻子一起服毒自杀

叶赛宁:莫悲伤,莫忧愁,在这样的生活中死去并不新鲜,当然,活着更不稀罕。
自杀方式:在一家旅馆割破手腕

杰克伦敦:当你爬上了山峰之后,你才发现一切都是虚空。
自杀方式:在自已的卧室注入过量的吗啡

伍尔夫:谁要下葬了?
自杀方式:投入马斯河自尽

08-13-2002 09:56:43

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) tim,
档案 | 邮件
转贴(by shafu)
文明的面纱
陆建德
  弗吉尼亚在她的留言里没有埋怨,没有指责,只有感激与爱。她以优雅的风度死去。她是不是又在“遮蔽感情的深井”?对“文明的面纱”的尊重在她身上已不是一种外在的装饰,它已融为她的自我意识的一部分。
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  作为《英国传记辞典》(即Dictionary of National Biography,简称DNB)首任主编莱斯利·斯蒂芬的女儿,弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫热爱传记写作这一文类算得上是“克绍箕裘”了。她为各种各样的人物留下了不朽的文字肖像,在形式上这些传记不为成法所拘,她甚至从女诗人布朗宁夫人的家犬的角度来反映主人的生平与情感。

  伍尔夫本人的生活经历和内心体验也是不少学者的研究对象,自从七十年代以来,关于她的传记不下十种。十几年前,她的六卷书信集和五卷日记相继出齐,这为有心为她立传的人提供了莫大的方便。林德尔·戈登的《弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫:一个作家的生命历程》(四川人民出版社,二OOO年,伍厚恺译)一书充分利用这些书信和日记,但它又是伍尔夫所信奉的那种直觉性传记的杰作。该书一九八四年初版后即获专为传记而设的詹姆斯·泰德·布莱克奖,一九九一年再版后作者又做了不少增补,中文本是根据增订本翻译的。原著注释中对常引证的书籍采用书名缩写加页码的方式,译者保留了此类注释的原有形式,并将原著"缩略语表"译出。传记著作(包括传记批评)饱含作者查检原始资料的心血,保留注释既是对作者劳动的尊重,也是保证一本译作学术性的起码要求。

   在以她朋友维塔·萨克维尔-维斯特(Vita Sackville-West)为原型的魔幻传记《奥兰多》中,伍尔夫写道:“一个作家灵魂的每一个秘密,他生命中每一次体验,他精神的每一种品质,都赫然大写在他的著作里。”也许是在这句话的启发下,林德尔·戈登将伍尔夫所有已发表或未发表的作品收入自己的视野,并在大西洋两岸图书馆收藏的大量档案中排沙简金,力图“在生活和著作之间进行来回反复的印证”。她在这部传记中既揭示那些“秘密”、“体验”和“品质”的留痕,又展现伍尔夫如何将个人的记忆提炼为非个人的艺术。戈登女士早大一九七七年就因《艾略特的早期生活》一书而出名,后来又写过夏洛特·勃朗特和亨利·詹姆斯的传记,在英美读书界是一位受到尊重的学者型传记作家。她的这本伍尔夫传记必将受到中国喜爱伍尔夫作品和英国文化的读者欢迎。

   在某些细小处我们能看到流行价值观念对本书叙述的干预。这类干预一般而言难以避免,但它们有时会留下小小的瑕疵。

  作者认为:“否认或遮蔽感情的深井,乃是维多利亚时代中产阶级的一种习惯,尤其是一种在女性身上根深蒂固的习惯,弗吉尼亚本人在这方面就做得从容自如。”她接着举出弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫一九O六年年底给维奥莱特·迪金森的一些信件作为例证。这位维奥莱特与斯蒂芬的子女亲如一家,那年秋天他们一起出游希腊,回英后弗吉尼亚的哥哥索比和维奥莱特先后患了伤寒,索比不治而亡。戈登写道:“一九O六年索比死于伤寒之后,她(指弗吉尼亚)给患伤寒的维奥莱特写了一些信以增强她的信心,在信件中她便精心编造说索比病情正在好转。”戈登称这“回避了语言交流规则”,是一种“深思熟虑的怪诞行为”。作者没有大写特写对所谓父权的反抗或一味把弗吉尼亚与几位女性的友谊渲染为同性恋(当然是极为光荣的!)倾向,但是她多少接受了某种女权批评的价值前提:只有在压迫性的社会人们才抑制自己的感情,而女性“否认或遮蔽感情的深井”更是男权专制的恶果。

  伍尔夫的外甥昆丁·贝尔(其兄朱利安曾在三十年代来华教书)在《弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫传》(一九七二年)里也提到这件事。索比死后,医生告诉弗吉尼亚,应尺一切可能不让病中的维奥莱特得知索比之死。于是天天给她写信的弗吉尼亚假装她哥哥还活着。索比死的那天她报了平安,葬礼举行三天后她甚至写道:“索比的状况相当不错,他对护士十分不满,因为她们不给他羊排和啤酒。”噩耗最终未能瞒住维奥莱特,弗吉尼亚只得以实情相告。显然,“否认或遮蔽感情的深井”在那特殊场合完全是为了别人的感情和健康着想。在二十世纪初的英国,同情、克制、无私和体贴等维多利亚时期强调的美德仍是行为的准则,大概到了五六十年代,不屑掩饰感情、想发脾气就发脾气才在某些圈子里成为胆量与“解放”程度的标志。

  说“假话”或“遮蔽感情的深井”往往是文明交往中的怡人之处,不顾他人的感情讲“真话”则是童子(“童言无忌”)和粗汉*的特权。弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫在《到灯塔去》一书中对此有生动描写。这部小说第一部分讲的是拉姆齐一家带朋友去海滨别墅度假,海岸外的礁岩上有一座灯塔,拉姆齐先生六岁的儿子詹姆斯盼望第二天能去灯塔玩,他妈妈则在给灯塔看守人的儿子编织绒线袜子,准备去时带上。但是从当时的风向来判断,第二天气候不好,不可能出海去灯塔。小说叙事者交代,拉姆齐先生从不歪曲事实,不会敷衍讨好任何人,不会把刺耳的话说得婉转一点。此刻他粗暴地对儿子说:“明天完全不可能到灯塔去。”然而他夫人却反问:或许风向会变,天将放晴?这在拉姆齐先生听来是愚蠢的妇人之见。气温在下降,风向朝西,当地人都知道这些可不是好兆头。他以为真话假话泾渭分明,不能“蔑视事实,使他的孩子们把希望寄托在完全不可能发生的事上”。可是温存细心的拉姆齐太太见识不同,她对丈夫以如此简单的方式让孩子失望难以容忍:“如此令人吃惊地丝毫不顾别人的感情而去追求真实,如此任性、如此粗暴地扯下薄薄的文明的面纱,对她来说,是对人类礼仪的可怕的蹂躏。”

  拉姆齐太太对“文明的面纱”和“人类礼仪”高度敏感,这种敏感性在必要的时候也会本能地“遮蔽感情的深井”。她的道德化的意识之流与《尤利西斯》末尾莫利的自由联想天差地远,我们不能把两者都贴上“意识流”的标签混为一谈。

  六十年前的三月二十八日,弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫纵身跳入她在萨塞克斯乡间住处旁的乌斯河,她曾数次回应死亡对她的召唤,这次她成功了。她沉入水深处,沉入生命的黑暗而神秘的本原。她在投河自尽前还留下字条,将自己毕生的幸福归功于她的丈夫伦纳德·伍尔夫。据好事者查证,他们的夫妻生活并非完善无缺,但是弗吉尼亚在她的留言里没有埋怨,没有指责,只有感激与爱。她以优雅的风度死去。她是不是又在“遮蔽感情的深井”?对“文明的面纱”的尊重在她身上已不是一种外在的装饰,它已融为她的自我意识的一部分。弗吉尼亚年幼时曾与哥哥索比打斗,后来她念及此事时为人类施痛于同胞的欲望深感“绝望与悲哀”。她并不像她的某些追随者那样幼稚地相信抛弃所谓压迫性的社会法规人就能抵达自由的天堂。“文明的面纱”和“人类礼仪”不是来自没遮没拦的感情的表达和本我的解放,它们来自天性的克制和感情的约束。

  林德尔·戈登对弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫一九O六年致维奥莱特信件的解释可能有误,但她在这位所谓“现代派”作家身上发现潜藏的维多利亚时期的心理习惯,这倒是值得庆幸的。弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫不大看得起爱德华时期(一九O一-一九一O)的文学创作风格,然而她本人在某些方面或许更加老派。

  在维多利亚时代的鼎盛期,约翰·亨利·纽曼描述了“绅士”的品质和博雅教育所培养的自尊心。他在《一所大学的设想》里说,“绝不施痛于人”是“绅士”的首要特征,而自尊心则训导人们“抑制他们的感情,按捺他们的性子”。

  由此看来,“否认或遮蔽感情的深井”并不一定总是意味着人性的扭曲,伴以善意,它既是文明的面纱,也是文明的本质。

08-13-2002 16:09:56

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) suede
嗯, 对不起,我在写文章的时候将virginia的死和Sylvia Plath的死法混在了一起.Virginia是投河死的.Sylvia Plath 是溺死在澡盆里的.
08-15-2002 11:48:08

新内容转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) 水和天
《奥兰多》内地是出版过的,具体的出版社我需要回去查一下,记得封面是蓝色的,上面有极艳俗的图片,封底标明“火鸟丛书”,译文不错,是色彩繁复的旧锦缎,光线降落时有非凡的美丽。
这套丛书选本偏僻,品质不俗,有哈代的《亲爱的》,海明威的《过河入林》,还有萨德的《朱斯蒂娜》等。
阅读《奥兰多》是一次愉快的经历,也是阅读伍尔夫最为轻松的一次,她的小说要买,可是读得头皮痛。所以,我就觉得她还是写书评对自己对大家更好一些,读她的日记时感受到的写作痛苦至今还令人不寒而栗。
然而《奥兰多》是突然的闪耀。
08-15-2002 15:13:25

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) haihao
SYLVIA PLATH不是溺死在澡盆里,虽然她在THE BELL JAR中叙述自己19岁时经历精神危机试图自杀是首选的就是这方法。她30岁时终于离去,是将自己的头伸进了烤箱中。
她在THE BELL JAR中对于澡盆中割腕有一段非常浪漫的想象,我曾在大学宿舍的床上译给同学听,大意是:我手腕上不断开出片片绚烂的罂粟花,直到白澡盆里满是绚烂的红色——
08-18-2002 13:30:37

新内容RE:转贴:有关Virginia Woolf(dr.joe) (编辑了 0 次) suede
right, I guess i only remembered the plot in the bell jar. But i'm pretty sure that she killed herself with gas instead of putting her head into an oven.(she is a poet, not a sm lover). Anyway, i still remember that sentence she wrote in daddy. "there's a stake in your fat, black heart" (such a weird feeling when reading it)
08-19-2002 03:58:55

发布新主题 | Printer
北京时间This UltraBoard v1.62 chinese edition translate by catoc


Powered by: LaCooL.cc